Effective behavior management to provide a good and safe learning environment:
have clear rules and procedures for classroom behavior, and take responsibility for promoting good and polite behavior in and around the classroom, in accordance with school policies; have high expectations of behavior, and create a disciplinary framework with a set of strategies, using praise, sanctions and rewards consistently and fairly; effectively manage classes using approaches that meet students’ needs in order to engage and motivate them maintain good relations with students, exercise appropriate authority and act decisively when necessary.
8. Fulfillment of broader professional responsibilities:
make a positive contribution to the wider life and ethos of the school; to form effective professional relations with colleagues, knowing how and when to rely on the advice and support of specialists; use support staff effectively; take responsibility for improving teaching through appropriate professional development, responding to advice and feedback from colleagues; communicate effectively with parents about student achievement and well-being.
The second group of requirements assumes that the teacher will demonstrate consistently high standards of personal and professional conduct. The behaviors and attitudes that set the standard for a teacher’s behavior throughout his career are determined by the following statements:
1. The teacher maintains public confidence in the profession and high standards of ethics and conduct, inside and outside the school, by:
teaching students with dignity, building relationships based on mutual respect, and constant adherence to appropriate boundaries that correspond to the professional position of the teacher; taking into account the need to ensure the welfare of students, in accordance with the requirements of the statute; tolerance and respect for the rights of others; adherence to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual freedom and mutual respect and tolerance for persons of other religions and beliefs; ensuring that his personal beliefs are not expressed in ways that exploit students’ vulnerabilities or may lead them to break the law;
2. Teachers must have due and professional respect for the ethos, policies and practices of the school in which they teach, and maintain high standards in their own discipline and punctuality.
3. Teachers must have an understanding, and always act within the framework set by the statute, which defines their professional duties and responsibilities.
In the United States, the National Council for Professional Teaching Standards was established in 1987 as a professional institution to identify and recognize teachers’ qualifications. It is guided by the principle that standards are created by teachers for teachers. The National Council sees its mission as maintaining high and stringent standards of what a qualified teacher should know and be able to perform, providing a national voluntary certification system for teachers who meet these standards, promoting related educational reforms, and integrating the National Council into the American education and benefit from the experience of certified teachers. There are studies that show that students of certified teachers are really more successful than students of other teachers.
The standards are based on the following requirements:
1. Teachers are committed to students and their learning.
In particular, they:
recognize individual differences of students and take them into account in their practice; understand how students develop and learn; treat students equally; know that their mission goes beyond the cognitive development of students.
2. Teachers know the subjects they teach and know how to teach these subjects to students:
understand how knowledge in their subject is created, organized and related to other subjects; have special knowledge on how to teach students the subject; form several paths to knowledge;
3. Teachers are responsible for the management and control of student learning:
use several methods to achieve learning goals; support student learning in a variety of formats and groups; appreciate the motivation of students; regularly assess students’ progress; involve students in learning collaboration.
4. Teachers systematically think about their practices and learn from their own experience:
make a difficult choice between alternatives, which characterizes their professionalism; use feedback and research to improve their own practice and positive impact on student learning;
5. Teachers are members of educational communities:
work with other professionals to improve school efficiency; work together as families; work together with communities.
Professional standards or other formalized requirements for teachers (including certification requirements) exist in many other countries, including Australia, France, Chile, and Japan. Their main requirements largely coincide with the standards of Great Britain and the United States. But often also set requirements for the level of education of candidates.
Professional standards are the basis for the development of appropriate standards of higher education. An example of such a standard is the “Tuning Points for the Design and Implementation of Degree Programs in Education” developed within the framework of the European Tuning project. The key general and special competencies for the training cycles, according to this document, are as follows.
First cycle (bachelor’s degree)
Teachers, educators and graduates of Education / Pedagogy must be able to work effectively in three intersecting areas:
work with information and knowledge on the subject taught, on educational issues and their theoretical foundations; work with students, trainees, colleagues and other partners in the field of education, which provides the ability to analyze complex situations related to human learning and development in specific contexts; work with society at local, regional, national, European and wider global levels, which involves the development of relevant professional values and the ability to take into account practices and contexts; enhancing the ability to reflect, including the ability to take into account one’s own and others’ value systems, development and practices.
Only for teacher training:
competence in several teaching / learning and assessment strategies; understanding of their theoretical foundations; the ability to create an equal and fair climate conducive to learning for all students, regardless of their socio-cultural and economic context.
Ability to ideas for narrative learn; communication skills; teamwork skills; information technology skills; problem solving; autonomy; reflection skills; interpersonal skills; time planning and management; problem solving; decision-making; understanding of diversity and multiculturalism; ethical obligations.
Ability to criticize and self-criticize; the ability to improve their own learning and activities, including the development of pedagogical and research skills; ability to identify, analyze, synthesize, evaluate problems and develop solutions; strong knowledge of the profession in practice.
Second cycle (master’s degree)
Competence in jointly solving problems related to education in different contexts.
Ability to adapt practices to specific educational contexts.
Development of knowledge and understanding in their chosen field of professional specialization in the wider educational field: management and administration in education; research of educational programs; educational policy; adult education; learning difficulties; children’s literature.
Ability to use research according to disciplines to improve practices.
Ability to reflect values that correspond to educational activities.
Research skills; leadership skills; communication skills, including the ability to communicate on advanced professional issues; ability to analyze and evaluate their own work; development of advanced cognitive skills related to the development and creation of knowledge.
Third cycle (doctoral school / graduate school)
Acquisition and understanding of a significant body of knowledge that is at the forefront of the field of education; identification of personal responsibility and largely autonomous initiative in complex and unpredictable situations, in professional or equivalent contexts related to education as a broad field.
Ability to be critical of the broad implications of applying knowledge in specific educational and professional contexts.
Carefully identify and study social norms and attitudes within your particular education specialty and take leadership actions to change them.
Ability to carry out independent, original and suitable for publication research in various fields of education and / or school pedagogy.
Creation and interpretation of new knowledge, through original research, or high-level study, the quality of which would meet the requirements of colleagues at the national and international levels.
Ability to demonstrate a significant range of basic skills, methods, tools, practices and / or materials related to the specialty.
Development of new skills, methods, tools, practices and / or materials.
Respond to abstract problems that expand and reassess existing procedural knowledge; discuss research and innovation results with colleagues.
Participation in critical dialogue; the ability to initiate complex social processes in their professional field and lead in them; ability to criticize and self-criticize.
Presentation and public defense of scientific results.
Summing up, I note that the above requirements of professional standards are largely reflected in the Ukrainian qualification requirements for teachers. But they are insufficiently taken into account, and often not taken into account at all, in the educational programs of pedagogical specialties and specializations, which focus on the subject of teaching.